George Sutherland

George Sutherland


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

George Sutherland se narodil ve Stony Stratfordu v Anglii 25. března 1862. Když byl dítě, rodina emigrovala do USA. Usadili se v Utahu a později získali vzdělání na Brigham Young Academy a University of Michigan.

Sutherland byl přijat do baru v roce 1883 a cvičil v Provu v Utahu. Člen republikánské strany, Sutherland sloužil Sněmovně reprezentantů (1901-03) a Senátu Spojených států (1905-17).

Poté, co byl poražen v roce 1916, se Sutherland stal právním poradcem Warrena Hardinga. Brzy poté, co se Harding stal prezidentem, jmenoval Sutherlanda k Nejvyššímu soudu. Sutherland byl konzervativní spravedlností a v roce 1923 postavil minimální mzdu mimo zákon.

Franklin D. Roosevelt, kandidát Demokratické strany, byl zvolen prezidentem v roce 1932. Během několika příštích let Sutherland a další soudci, kteří byli příznivci Republikánské strany, rozhodovali proti National Recovery Administration (NRA), zákona o úpravě zemědělství ( AAA) a dalších deset zákonů Nové dohody.

2. února 1937 Franklin D. Roosevelt pronesl projev útočící na Nejvyšší soud za jeho činy týkající se legislativy New Deal. Poukázal na to, že sedm z devíti soudců (Sutherland, Charles Hughes, Willis Van Devanter, Harlan Stone, Owen Roberts, Benjamin Cardozo a Pierce Butler) bylo jmenováno republikánskými prezidenty. Roosevelt právě vyhrál znovuzvolení o 10 000 000 hlasů a nelíbilo se mu, že soudci mohli vetovat legislativu, která zjevně měla podporu drtivé většiny veřejnosti.

Roosevelt navrhl, že věk byl zásadním problémem, protože šesti rozhodčím bylo více než 70 let (Sutherland, Charles Hughes, Willis Van Devanter, James McReynolds, Louis Brandeis a Pierce Butler). Roosevelt oznámil, že se chystá požádat Kongres o schválení zákona, který prezidentovi umožní rozšířit Nejvyšší soud přidáním jednoho nového soudce, a to až do maximálního počtu šesti, pro každého současného soudce staršího 70 let.

Charles Hughes si uvědomil, že Rooseveltův návrh zákona o reorganizaci soudu by vedl k tomu, že by se Nejvyšší soud dostal pod kontrolu Demokratické strany. Jeho prvním krokem bylo zajistit zveřejnění dopisu, který napsal, Burton Wheeler, předseda soudního výboru. V dopise Hughes kogentně vyvrátil všechna tvrzení Franklina D. Roosevelta.

V zákulisí byl však Charles Hughes zaneprázdněn obchodováním, aby se ujistil, že Rooseveltův návrh zákona bude v Kongresu poražen. 29. března Owen Roberts oznámil, že změnil názor na hlasování proti legislativě o minimální mzdě. Hughes také obrátil svůj názor na zákon o sociálním zabezpečení a zákon o národních pracovních vztazích (NLRA) a hlasováním 5-4 byli nyní prohlášeni za ústavní.

Poté Willis Van Devanter, pravděpodobně nejkonzervativnější ze soudců, oznámil svůj záměr odstoupit. Nahradil ho Hugo Black, člen Demokratické strany a silný zastánce New Deal. V červenci 1937 Kongres porazil zákon o reorganizaci soudu o 70–20. Roosevelt však měl to uspokojení, že věděl, že má Nejvyšší soud, který nyní méně pravděpodobně blokuje jeho legislativu.

George Sutherland odstoupil z Nejvyššího soudu v roce 1938 ve věku 76 let. Zemřel ve Stockbridge v Massachusetts 18. července 1942.


SUTHERLAND, GEORGE

George Sutherland sloužil jako přísedící soudce Nejvyššího soudu USA v letech 1922 až 1938. Konzervativní právník Sutherland byl proti úsilí Kongresu a státních zákonodárců o regulaci obchodních a pracovních podmínek. Během třicátých let byl součástí konzervativního bloku, který ovládal neústavní hlavní části prezidenta Franklina d. nový program rooseveltu.

Sutherland se narodil 25. března 1862 v Buckinghamshire v Anglii. Když byl Sutherland malé dítě, jeho rodiče emigrovali do USA a usadili se v Provu v Utahu. Sutherland absolvoval Brigham Young University v roce 1881 a navštěvoval University of Michigan Law School v roce 1882 a 1883. Byl přijat do Michigan baru v roce 1883, ale vrátil se ten stejný rok do Utahu, kde založil advokátní praxi v Salt Lake City.

Sutherland se zajímal o politiku a sloužil v územní legislativě. V roce 1896, poté, co se Utah stal státem, byl Sutherland zvolen do prvního Utahského senátu jako republikánský člen strany. V roce 1901 byl zvolen do Sněmovny reprezentantů USA a v roce 1905 se stal americkým senátorem z Utahu.

„[Nejsmutnější epitaf, který může být vytesán do paměti [pro] zmizelou svobodu, je, že byl ztracen, protože jeho vlastníci nedokázali natáhnout spásnou ruku, přestože byl čas.“
—George Sutherland

Přes Sutherlandovu pověst politického konzervativce v Kongresu podporoval reformní programy prezidenta Theodora Roosevelta. Rovněž podpořil legislativu pro odškodňování pracovníků pro železniční pracovníky a devatenáctý dodatek ústavy USA, který

zajišťoval volební právo žen. Přesto věřil, že individuální práva jsou prvořadá a že vláda by neměla zasahovat do většiny ekonomických aktivit.

Poté, co byl Sutherland poražen v senátních volbách 1916, se zapojil do národní republikánské politiky a sloužil jako poradce prezidenta warrena g. harding, který byl zvolen v roce 1920. Jméno Sutherlanda bylo několik let zmiňováno jako možný jmenovatel Nejvyššího soudu a v září 1922 Harding nominoval Sutherlanda k soudu.

Sutherland se připojil k Nejvyššímu soudu, kterému dominují konzervativci. Stejně jako konzervativní většina, Sutherland věřil v nauku o řádném procesu věcné správnosti, která tvrdila, že se lze dovolávat klauzulí patřičného procesu z Pátého a Čtrnáctého dodatku k ústavě USA, aby se stanovila omezení obsahu vládních nařízení a dalších činností, kterými vláda ovlivňuje „život, svobodu a majetek“. Od 80. let 19. století Nejvyšší soud vyvolal řádný řádný proces s cílem odstranit řadu státních a federálních zákonů, které upravovaly pracovní podmínky, mzdy a obchodní činnosti.

Sutherland se také držel konceptu smluvní svobody, který stanovil, že vláda by neměla zasahovat do práva jednotlivců uzavírat smlouvy se svými zaměstnavateli ohledně mezd, pracovní doby a pracovních podmínek. Sutherland napsal většinový názor v Adkins v. Dětská nemocnice, 261 U.S. 525, 43 S. Ct. 394, 67 L. Ed. 785 (1923), ve kterém Soud zrušil federální zákon o minimální mzdě pro ženy pracující v District of Columbia. Sutherland dospěl k závěru, že zaměstnavatel a zaměstnanec mají ústavní právo vyjednat si o mzdách jakékoli podmínky, které jim vyhovuje. Sutherland odmítl myšlenku, že Kongres má pravomoc napravovat sociální a ekonomické rozdíly, které obecně poškozují společnost.

S krachem akciového trhu v roce 1929 a velkou hospodářskou krizí ve 30. letech 20. století se konzervativní většina u soudu dostala pod intenzivní veřejnou a politickou kontrolu. Volby Franklina D. Roosevelta v roce 1932 signalizovaly změnu filozofie týkající se role federální vlády. Rooseveltova nová dohoda byla založena na národním ekonomickém plánování a vytvoření správních agentur pro regulaci obchodu a práce. To byla pro Sutherlanda a jeho konzervativní bratry anathema.

V letech 1933 až 1937 Soud zrušil řadu opatření New Deal. Sutherland, spolu s Justices James c. mcreynolds, willis van devanter a pierce butler tvořili jádro opozice vůči federálním snahám o revitalizaci ekonomiky a vytvoření sítě sociální bezpečnosti. Tzv. Čtyři jezdci pomohli protiústavně zrušit zákon o národní průmyslové obnově z roku 1933 Spojené státy, Schechter Poultry Corporation v. 295 U.S. 495, 55 S. Ct. 837, 79 L. Ed. 1570 (1935) a zákon o zemědělských úpravách z roku 1933 v Spojené státy v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1, 56 S. Ct. 312, 80 L. Ed. 477 (1936).

Roosevelt reagoval tím, že navrhl plán balení soudů, který by dodal soudu další spravedlnost pro každého člena staršího sedmdesáti let. Tento plán se zaměřil na čtyři jezdce a pokud by byl realizován, zrušil by jejich hlasy. Ačkoli byl Rooseveltův plán Kongresem odmítnut, národní diskuse o roli federální vlády a odmítnutí Nejvyššího soudu vedla umírněnější členy soudu ke změně jejich postojů a hlasování ve prospěch návrhů New Deal. S přílivem se Sutherland v roce 1938 odebral do důchodu.

Přes své konzervativní názory na vládu a podnikání hájil Sutherland práva svobody i vlastnická práva. Ve věci Powell v. Alabama, 287 U.S. 45, 53 S. Ct. 55, 77 L. Ed. 158 (1932), Sutherland zrušil přesvědčení „chlapců Scottsboro“, skupiny mladých Afroameričanů odsouzených k smrti za údajné sexuální napadení dvou bílých žen. Sutherland rozhodl, že šestý dodatek zaručuje adekvátní právní poradenství ve státním trestním řízení.

Sutherland zemřel 18. července 1942 v Stock-bridge, Massachusetts.


George Sutherland - historie

od DANIEL J. J. SUTHERLAND

Historie klanu Sutherland, zakořeněná v tradici a zahalená rouškami času, je plná záhad. Předpokládá se, že genealogický strom klanu může mít svůj původ ve Flandrech i ve Skotsku s kmenovou společností Piktů a Keltů. Hodně z historie, zejména raného období, je ztraceno, ale z dochovaných písemných pramenů je rodokmen klanu vysledován od Moraye ve 12. století až po nový model osídlení a expanze, nejprve v Sutherlandu a Caithness, později ve Skotsku a někde jinde.

Ve stromu klanu hrabě z Sutherlandu, doupě Forse a doupata Duffa a Skelba společně představují stonek a hlavní větve. Tato esej má dát vznik těmto třem rodinám: naznačit některé z mladších větví a zasadit historii klanu do jeho geografického prostředí v období předcházejícím velkým změnám 19. století. Náčelníci, náčelníci a klanové, „klan“ nebo děti jednoho společného předka, přežívají v záznamech onoho období, rozpětí sedmi století s více než dvaceti generacemi. V historii Vysočiny se podíleli na záležitostech svého klanu a zemí, tedy dlouho před velkými změnami, které následovaly po konfliktech Cullodenu, Bastily a Waterloo a které zanikly starověký způsob života na Vysočině. Mnozí z klanu se podíleli na historických událostech, jako jsou Bannockburn a Halidon Hill, služba zbraní do nížin a Ruska a výsadba nových kolonií od Nového Skotska po Západní Indii. Není zamýšleno vstoupit do těchto aspektů historie. Jsou součástí pozadí rodokmenu klanu. Informace pro tuto esej jsou převzaty z tištěných zdrojů, které jsou očíslovány () a uvedeny níže. Hodně citované v těchto pramenech je jedno obzvláště zajímavé dílo ze 17. století. Je to 'genealogická historie hrabství Sutherland od jeho vzniku do roku 1630. s pokračováním roku 1651 ', napsaný Sirem Robertem Gordonem z Gordonstouna, synem Alexandra, jedenáctého hraběte ze Sutherlandu, a Gilbertem Gordonem ze Sailaghu, vytištěno v roce 1813. Tyto prameny mají velký zájem o studenty historie klanu Sutherlanda .

1. RODINA SUTHERLANDU, EARLS OF SUTHERLAND

Genealogie klanu a dynastie hrabství začala Freskinem. Jeho původ je nejistý. Jeho potomci jsou popisováni jako „ze Sutherlandu“, později „Sutherland“. Nejstarší syn uspěl jako hlava rodiny a nakonec jako náčelník klanu a hrabě (stará norština: náčelník hrabě, šlechtic). Již v 15. století, pravděpodobně mnohem dříve, žila rodina na hradě Dunrobin, který je považován za jeden z nejstarších domů v Británii nepřetržitě obývaných jednou rodinou. Název pochází z gaelského Dun Robin, Robinova kopce nebo pevnosti.

1. Freskin, první zaznamenaný předchůdce hrabat ze Sutherlandu, který může být vlámského původu, měl od krále Davida I. (1124-1153) Strabrocka v západním Lothian a Duffa v Moray. Freskin je v listině svého syna Williama pojmenován králem Vilémem lvem (1165-1214) v letech 1166 až 1171.

2. William, syn Freskin ,. byl svědkem toho, že v roce 1160 měla listina v letech 1166 až 1171 listinu o pozemcích jeho otce a možná to byl William Fresekyn, „šerif z Invernarynu“ pojmenovaný v roce 1204. William měl tři syny:

b. William, syn Williama, syna Freskina, pojmenovaný spolu se svým bratrem Hughem jako svědek po roce 1195, byl pánem Petty, Bracholy, Boharm a Arteldol a věří se, že je předkem Morays of Bothwell.

C. Andrew, pojmenovaný před rokem 1203 jako syn Williama, syna Freskina, a jako Parsons of Duffus, později jako bratr Hugha Freskina a Williama, mohl být naživu v roce 1221.

3. Hugh, syn Williama, syna Freskina, od roku 1195 dále v listinách pojmenovaný Hugh Freskin a Hugh de Moravia, byl dědicem Duffa a Strabrocka. Biskup z Moray mu daroval, pánovi z Duffu, bezplatnou kapli na zámku Duffus v letech 1203 až 1214. Do roku 1211 měl také Skelbo a další pozemky v Sutherlandu. Dal Skelbo, Invershin a Fernebucklyn Gilbertu de Moravia, arciděkanovi z Moray. Skelbo dostal za službu jednoho lukostřelce a službu králi. Hugh Freskin zemřel před rokem 1222 a byl pohřben v kostele Duffus a zanechal tři syny:

b. Walter, syn Hugha Freskina, si vzal Eufemii, dceru Ferquharda, hraběte z Rosse. Zemřel c. 1263 a byl pohřben v Duffu.

C. Andrew, syn Hugha de Moravia, pojmenovaný v letech 1203 až 1214 jako farář Duffus a v roce 1222 jako biskup z Moray, možná zahájil stavbu katedrály v Elginu. Zemřel v roce 1242.

4. William, syn a dědic Hugha Freskina a Pána ze Sutherlandu, potvrdil otcovu listinu Skelba a dalších zemí daných arciděkanovi Gilbertovi v letech 1211 až 1222. Jmenován je v roce 1232 jako Vilém ze Sutherlandu a snad v roce 1235 nebo později byl udělal hraběte ze Sutherlandu. Sir Robert Gordon uvádí, že pomohl Gilbertovi, biskupu z Caithness při stavbě katedrály Dornoch. Hrabě prý zemřel v roce 1248 a byl pohřben v katedrále. Měl syna Williama.

5. William, syn Williama a druhý hrabě ze Sutherlandu. pojmenovaný v účtech platby králi (Alexander m, 1249-1286) v letech 1263 a 1266, svědkem v roce 1269 listina hraběte z Rossa o pozemcích církvi Moray. V Scone v Perthshire se zúčastnil v letech 1283-84 Parlamentu, který přijal norskou kojeneckou Markétu za skotskou královnu. Vnučka krále Alexandra III. 1290. Earl William podpořil nárok na trůn krále Roberta I. („Bruce“ 1306-1329) a v Berwicku v roce 1296 podepsal poctu, ale později se přidal k anglickému králi (Edward I, „Longshanks“, 1272- 1307) a zemřel c. 1306-7. Měl dva syny:

A. William, syn Williama a třetí hrabě ze Sutherlandu. nezletilý, když zemřel jeho otec, uspěl v letech 1306-7. Jeho svěřenec dostal John, mladší syn hraběte z Rosse. V letech 1308-9 se mladý hrabě zúčastnil parlamentu v St Andrews. Sir Robert Gordon uvádí, že hrabě bojoval u Bannock-burn (Stirling), bitvy roku 1314, která dala Bruceovi vládu nad Skotskem. Hrabě podepsal v roce 1320 dopis šlechticů papeži Janu XXII. Známému jako Arbroathská deklarace, kterým se prosazuje úplná nezávislost Skotska na Anglické koruně. Zemřel před rokem 1331.

6. Kenneth, syn Williama a čtvrtého hraběte ze Sutherlandu. následoval jeho bratra Williama před 1331. Skotové, snažící se obléhat Berwick, byli s velkými ztrátami poraženi Angličany a hrabě byl zabit v bitvě na Halidon Hill v roce 1333. Sir Robert Gordon uvádí, že Earl Kenneth se oženil Mary, dcera Donalda, hrabě z Mar. Měl dva syny a jednu dceru.

b. Nicholas, ANCESTOR OF LAIRDS OF DUFFUS

C. Eastachia si vzal c. 1330 Gilbert Moray z Culbin

7. William, syn Kennetha a pátého hraběte ze Sutherlandu, nastoupil po svém otci v roce 1333. Earl je věřil, že bojoval u Kilblene a účastnil se obléhání hradu Cupar, Fife. S hrabětem z března se zúčastnil vpádu do Anglie. Earl William si vzal Margaret, sestru krále Davida II (1329-71). Manželé měli v 1345 zemích v Angusu, Kincardinu a Aberdeenu „Sutherland byl učiněn královstvím“. Také měli v roce 1346 skalní útes Dunnottar v Angusu s licencí na stavbu fortalice. V letech 1346-47, po smrti princezny Margarety, jeho hraběnky, se hrabě oženil s Joannou Menteith. Hrabě s „mnoha muži ve zbrani“ podle všeho doprovázel krále Davida II. Do Anglie a oba byli zajati v bitvě u Nevillova kříže Durhamem v roce 1346, ale v roce 1351 měl hrabě bezpečné jednání, aby v Newcastlu svěřil královo výkupné. Za návrat krále do Skotska dal hrabě jako rukojmí svého malého syna a dědice. V roce 1357 se hrabě i jeho syn stali rukojmími za výplatu královského výkupného. V Anglii zůstali více než deset let, příležitostně navštívili Skotsko. V letech 1358-59 měli od krále baronství a hrad Urquhart od Inverness. Earl William zemřel pravděpodobně v roce 1370, pravděpodobně zabit jako pomsta za jeho podíl na vraždě u Dingwallof Iye Mackay, náčelníka klanu a Donalda jeho syna, téhož roku. Earl William měl tři syny, z nichž nejstarší z jeho první manželky:

A. John, rukojmí v Anglii, tam podle všeho ještě velmi mladý zemřel v roce 1361 u Lincolna na mor.

C. Kenneth, ANCESTOR OF LAIRDS OF FORSE

8. Robert, syn Williama a šestého hraběte ze Sutherlandu (v roce 1389 nebo dříve), je kronikářem Froissartem jmenován vůdcem Skotů, kteří v roce 1388 napadli Západní Anglii. V letech 1400-1 daroval svému bratrovi Kennethovi listina Drummoye a dalších zemí. Listina poskytuje nejdříve známý odkaz na hrad Dunrobin. Hrabě se oženil s Margaret Stewartovou, dcerou Alexandra, hraběte z Buchanu, a údajně zemřel v roce 1442. Měl tři syny:

b. Robert, pojmenovaný sirem Robertem Gordonem jako syn hraběte Roberta.

C. Alexander, také pojmenovaný sirem Robertem.

9. John, syn Roberta a sedmého hraběte ze Sutherlandu, doprovázel svého strýce Alexandra Stewarta, hraběte z Mar, do Flander c.1408. Současný kronikář Wyntoun uvádí, že hrabě z Mar knighted some of his esquires, of which John of Sutherland & quothis newew a lord apperand of vertew, Heretabil Eri of that Country. V roce 1427 byl hrabě John pravděpodobně jedním z rukojmích krále Jakuba I., který byl držen v Anglii v letech 1406 až 1424. Hrabě byl uvězněn na hradě Pontefract v Yorkshire a odtud dal roku 1444 listinu Torboll v Sutherlandu svému příbuznému Alexandrovi. Sutherland z Duffu. V roce 1448 byl v Dunrobinu a v roce 1451 spolu se svou manželkou Margaret Baillie dostal pozemek ve farnosti Loth v Sutherlandu. Sir Robert Gordon uvádí, že hrabě John zemřel v roce 1460 a byl pohřben v kapli svatého Ondřeje v Golspie v Sutherlandu. Měl čtyři nebo pět synů, přirozeného syna a jednu dceru:

A. Alexander, syn Jana a mistra Sutherlanda, jmenovaný v roce 1449, zemřel pravděpodobně v roce 1456 nebo dříve.

C. Nicholas, pojmenovaný Earl John v listině 1448 jako jeho syn.

d. Thomas Beg (Malý Thomas), pojmenovaný Sirem Robertem Gordonem jako předchůdce Sutherlands ve Strathullie, (strath Kildonan), širokém údolí protékaném řekou Uilligh (řeka Helmsdale) s plochými, nízko položenými pozemky (srath) , ohraničený vyvýšeným místem ve farnosti Kildonan v Sutherlandu.

E. Robert, může být hraběcí strýc pojmenovaný sirem Robertem Gordonem jako přítomný při konfliktu v Aldycharrish (Strath Oykell) v roce 1487.

F. Janet se provdala v roce 1480 za Alexandra, syna sira Alexandra Dunbara z Westfieldu, bratra sira Jamese Dunbara z Cumnocku.

G. Thomas Mor (Big Thomas), popsaný sirem Robertem Gordonem jako přirozený syn hraběte, jehož dva syny zabil jejich strýc Earl John.

10. John, syn Johna a osmého hraběte ze Sutherlandu, jmenovaný v letech 1455-56, byl v roce 1494 prohlášen za duševně nemocného a svěřen do péče sira Jamese Dunbara z Cumnocku, který v letech 1497-98 doprovázel hraběte a jeho syna ke králi Jakubovi IV. (1488-1513). Sir Robert Gordon uvádí, že hrabě se oženil s dcerou Alexandra MacDonalda. Lord of the Isles, který se téměř utopil při přechodu řeky Littleferry na řeku Unes (ústí Fleet mezi Dornochem a Golspie), byla zabita lupičem. Druhou manželkou hraběte byla zjevně Fingole, dcera Williama z Calderu, Thane z Cawdoru, vdova po Johnu Monrovi z Fowlis, která zemřela v roce 1491 nebo dříve, v letech 1497-98 se připravoval rozvod mezi ní a hrabětem a on se oženil jako třetí Catherine, pojmenovaná jako hraběnka ze Sutherlandu v letech 1509-12. Hrabě prý zemřel v roce 1508. Měl dva syny a jednu dceru:

b. Elizabeth, dcera Johna a hraběnky ze Sutherlandu, se provdala za Adama Gordona z Aboyne v roce 1500, což byl rok daný Sirem Robertem Gordonem. Její manžel byl synem George, hrabě z Huntly. Alžběta následovala svého bratra Johna v roce 1515 a odkázala hrabství svému nejstaršímu synovi Alexandrovi. ANCESTOR RODINY GORDON, EARLS OF SUTHERLAND. Hraběnka Elizabeth zemřela na zámku Aboyne v Deeside v Aberdeenu v roce 1505.

C. Alexander, popsaný Sirem Robertem Gordonem jako přirozený syn hraběte Johna dcerou Rosse z Balnagownu, narozeného v roce 1491, se postavil proti nástupnictví svého bratra ve věku osmnácti let v roce 1509. Alexandrovo nástupnické právo bylo vyhrazeno, pokud dědic jeho nevlastní sestry Alžběty neuspěl. On byl také kompenzován zeměmi v hodnotě čtyřicet trhaných ročně, ale v roce 1514, ve spolupráci s jeho nevlastním bratrem Robertem Munroem jako prokurátorem, se postavil proti své sestře jako dědici jejího bratra Earla Johna. V roce 1515 se zmocnil a držel hrad Dunrobin, načež byl uvězněn v Edinburghu. V roce 1515 znovu obsadil hrad, ale byl nucen se vzdát a v letech 1519-20 byl Brora zabit v Kintradwellu. Oženil se s dcerou Iye Roy-Mackaye ze Strathnaveru a měl potomky.

11. John, syn Johna a devátého hraběte ze Sutherlandu, byl v raném věku vzat s otcem za přítomnosti krále Jakuba IV. V roce 1493 a uspěl v roce 1508 jako strážce koruny, hrabství spravoval Andrew Stewart, biskup z Caithness. V Perthu v roce 1514 byl hrabě prohlášen za právně neschopného. V otázce svého nástupce hrabě prohlásil, že jeho nejbližšími dědici byla jeho sestra Elizabeth a její manžel Adam Gordon a jejich děti. Jeho smrt o měsíc později v roce 1514 znamenala konec první dynastie hrabat ze Sutherlandu.

IV. RODINA SUTHERLANDU, LAIRDS OF DUFFUS A SKELBO (1)

Rodina sestoupila z Freskina přes Kennetha, čtvrtého hraběte ze Sutherlandu a Marii, dceru hraběte z Mar, jeho hraběnky. Žili v Duffu u Elgina v Moray a Skelba u Dornocha v Sutherlandu, dvou hradech úctyhodné antiky, oba nyní ruiny.

1. Nicholas, syn Kennetha, čtvrtého hraběte ze Sutherlandu, měl v roce 1360 Torboll v Sutherlandu od svého bratra Williama, pátého hraběte ze Sutherlandu, za službu jednoho rytíře. Jeho manželka Marie, dcera Reginalda le Cheyna a Marie, Marie z Duffu, mu přinesla část Duffus v Moray a přistála v Caithness. V roce 1370 se Nicholas podílel na vraždě Iye Mackaye v Dingwallu (Ross-shire) klan a Donald, jeho syn. V roce 1408 je jmenován pánem hradu Duffus. Měl dva syny:

A. Jan, syn a dědic Mikuláše, ratifikoval udělením pozemků jeho otce jeho bratra Jindřicha m. 1408. V letech 1424 až 1427 byl Jan jedním z rukojmích krále Jakuba I. (1406–24 v zajetí v Anglii, r. 1424–37 ).

b. Jindřich (jako 2). 2. Henry, syn Nicholase, měl Torbolla od Roberta, šestého hraběte ze Sutherlandu. Zemřel před rokem 1434. Margaret Mureffová (Morayová) je jmenována manželkou Jindřicha ze Sutherlandu v roce 1438. Po její smrti měla pozemky s domy východně od Wicku v Caithnessu „abon the sand“ v držení Boha a „Haly Kirk“ a ze St. Fergus, patron Wicka. Henry měl syna (jako 3).

3. Alexandr vystřídal svého otce Jindřicha v Torbollu a Duffa měl v roce 1434 nebo dříve, když Robertu Crichtonovi ze Sanquharu předal jednadvacet oxgangových pozemků v West Lothian. Prodal své pozemky ve Forfar. V roce 1444 měl od Johna, sedmého hraběte ze Sutherlandu, potvrzení svých zemí Torboll a možná navštívil hraběte, který byl tehdy rukojmím na zámku Pontefract. V korunní listině z roku 1541 se jmenuje Sir Alexander Sutherland z Duffu. Oženil se s Muriel, dcerou Johna Chisholma z Chisholmu v letech 1433-34 a měl Quarrelwood a další země poblíž Elginu v Moray. Zdá se, že zemřel před rokem 1484 a měl dva syny a tři dcery:

b. Angus měl Torbolla a vzal si Christinu. Měli problém.

C. Isabella, živá v roce 1502, se provdala za Alexandra Dunbara z Westfieldu.

d. Dorothea, údajně dcera Alexandra Sutherlanda z Duffu, byla pojmenována jako přispívající motiv smrti v bitvě u Alli Charraisové o jejího manžela Alexandra Rosse v roce 1486 (Poznámka: Sir Robert Gordon uvádí bitvu jako na Aldycharrishu v roce 1487, DJJS).

E. Muriel prý byla další dcerou Alexandra provdaného za Alexandra Setona z Meldrumu a Andrewa Frasera ze Stanywoodu, s nímž měla v roce 1501 korunní listinu Stanywoodu.

4. William se v roce 1451 jmenuje „z Berydalla“ (Berriedale in Caithness) a jako syn a zjevný dědic Alexandra Sutherlanda a jeho manželky Muriel. Zemřel brzy po roce 1474. Měl dva syny a jednu dceru:

A. Alexander, pravděpodobně ten, kdo měl část Strabrocku v roce 1475, zemřel před rokem 1479 jako vnuk 'Ald Alexander of Sutherland' a zanechal dceru Christinu, která je pojmenována v roce 1494 jako dcera Alexandra Sutherlanda ze Strabrocku a následovala Duffa a přistála v Caithness. Provdala se c. 1489 William Oliphant a později Sir Thomas Lundin z Pratis. Spor mezi Chnstinou a jejím strýcem Williamem Sutherlandem byl urovnán odvoláním k papeži, c. 1507.

C. Isabel se provdala v roce 1474 za Hew Rose, mladší z Kilravocku.

5. William, předpokládaný jako druhý z Williama, pojmenovaný v roce 1484, měl Quarrelwood a Duffus a v roce 1507 korunní listinu Duffus. Obvinil legitimitu své neteře Christiny. Zemřel v roce 1514 nebo dříve, možná v bitvě u Floddenu (Berwiek), porážce Skotů za krále Jakuba IV. (1488-1513) v roce 1513. William se zjevně oženil s Lady Greeship Janet Innesové “a měl syna (jako 6).

6. William, syn Williama, měl Duffa. pravděpodobně také měl Quarrelwood v letech 1513-14 nebo dříve. a infftmentem 1519-26 měl otcovy země Birchmond (Brichtmony v Nairn). v roce 1524 mu Ring James V (1513-42) daroval Kinsteary (Nairn). V roce 1525 měl Torboll a Pronsy. Zemní práce hradu Pronsy ve farnosti Dornoch jsou pozůstatky starověké pevnosti. Tyto země předtím držel Hugh Sutherland, syn Anguse (jako 3b), od Elizabeth, hraběnky ze Sutherlandu a Adama Gordona jako vládců. Oženil se s Janet dcerou Alexandra Innesa z Innes a zemřel v roce 1529. Měl dva syny a jednu dceru:

b. Alexander byl rektorem Duffus v roce 1512, kaplan pro kapli hradu Duffus v roce 1524 a děkan (vedoucí kapitoly pro katedrálu) z Caithness. (Byl to Gilbert z Moray, biskup z Caithness a patron Dornocha, kdo založil katedrálu Dornoch v diecézi Caithness včetně hrabství Sutherland, DJJS>. Alexander založil výročí (slavení mše na památku někoho na den jeho smrti) pro jeho rodiče, jeho bratra Williama a další. V roce 1549 byl kurátorem svého prasynovce Alexandra Sutherlanda z Duffu a v roce 1551 byl stále naživu.

C. Elizabeth si vzala Johna, třetího hraběte z Caithness.

7. William uspěl v letech 1527-29 jako nejstarší syn jeho otec William Sutherland z Duffus a Quarrelwood v Elgin a Nairn v zemích Brichtmony, Kinstearie a Auldearn. V roce 1529 koupil od Johna Kynnarda té Ilk určité země včetně Skelba v nadvládě hraběte ze Sutherlandu, zaplatil 2 300 skotských skotů a dal spoutu mužům (mužům, které by pán mohl povolat ve válce) jako nájemce a vazal k hrabě. V roce 1530 mu král James V. dal určitá práva ve Stratnaveru, které předtím držel Hugh Mackay z Farru. Jak uvedl Sir Robert Gordon, William Sutherland z Duffu byl na popud biskupa z Caithness zabit klanem Gunn v Thursu v roce 1530. Měl syna (jako 8).

8. William, syn Williama Sutherlanda z Duffu, vyzval biskupa, aby odpověděl za smrt jeho otce. Když biskup jeho výzvu ignoroval. mladý laird Sized biskupových služebníků, načež on a jeho strýc, děkan Caithness, byli uvězněni a rada záchoda nucena uzavřít mír s biskupem. V roce 1535 William zdědil Terboll další země a v roce 1540 dal Kinsteary a Brichtmony Johnu Campbellovi z Calderu. V roce 1542 ho porota prohlásila za zákonného dědice infikace jeho otce v zemích a nájmech v Inverness-hrabství. Také v roce 1542 urovnal násilný spor s Donaldem Mackayem z Farru o pozemky udělené jeho otci v roce 1530, hrabě Moray jako arbitr. William zemřel v roce 1543. Jeho manželka Elizabeth se za druhé provdala za Jamese Murraye z Culbardie. Měl čtyři syny:

b. Vilém z Evelixu (farnost Dornoch), svědek v roce 1562, se zúčastnil dobytí hradu Berriedale (Caithness) v roce 1566 a při náletu na Dornoch z roku 1570. kde prý rozptýlil popel biskupa Gilberta Moray ('Saint Gilbert') a zemřel krátce poté. (Hrad je nyní značně redukovanou ruinou).

C. Nicholas, také svědek v roce 1562, pojmenovaný v listinách 1562 a 1566, byl v Berriedale v roce 1566.

d. Walter je (možná omylem) pojmenován jako bratr Alexandra v roce 1562).

9. Alexander vystřídal svého otce Williama Sutherlanda z Duffu před rokem 1544. Ještě jako nezletilý v roce 1554 byl infiltován s osvobozením od hraběte ze Sutherlandu jako vládce v zemích a zámku Skelbo, také v Invershin a dalších zemích. Roku 1555 měl sasinu z Duffu. V roce 1562 vytvořil hrabě ze Sutherlandu Skelbo. Invershin, Pronsy, Torboll a všechny ostatní země v Sutherlandu, které budou drženy Alexandrem Sutherlandem z Duffu za „ochranu a pomoc“ a další služby do baronství ze Skelba. V roce 1560 se zúčastnil parlamentu, který ratifikoval první vyznání víry. V roce 1563 hrabě propadl hrabství a Alexander držel Skelbo z koruny. V roce 1559 laird z Duffus a hrabě z Caithness uzavřeli dohodu o sňatku svých nejstarších dětí. Zapletl se do hraběcích sporů a pravděpodobně souhlasil se zabavením jeho bratry z hradu Berriedale lordem Oliphantem. Alexander se také zúčastnil s Earlovými muži při přepadení Dornocha v letech 1567 a 1570. Oženil se (smlouva ze dne 1552–53) Janet, dcera Jamese Granta z Freuchie. Za druhé se provdala za Jamese Dempstera z Auchterless (smlouva z roku 1577). Alexander měl tři syny a jednu dceru:

A. Alexander, narozený c. 1554 je uveden ve smlouvě o jeho zamýšleném manželství s Elizabeth Sinclair.

C. James, narozen v roce 1561., byl umístěn „do pěstounské péče s Angusem Hectorsoneem“, jemuž Jamesův otec Alexander dal „fyve meris (klisny) s ane stallione“ a kterým byly přidány „čtyři meris“ ve prospěch dítěte. V roce 1590 byl James opatrovníkem své matky Janet Grantové. Na jeho manželství s Violet, dcerou Thomase Frasera ze Strichenu, měl Kinsteary v Moray od svého bratra Williama Sutherlanda. James byl předkem Sutherlands z Kinstearie.

d. Alžběta se vdala (smlouva z roku 1590) Archibalda Douglase z Pittendreichu.

10. William, son and heir to Alexander Sutherland of Duffus, was infeft in Duffus and Greschip in 1579. He also had Quarrelwood and other lands. Although he had been appointed to keep order in the North, he is said to have reset (harbour) 'broken men' (outlaws) on his lands in 1587. In 1588 Duffus, Quarrelwood, Greschip and other lands were made into the barony of Duffus. In 1606 the laird of Duffus and the burgh of Dornoch agreed the boundaries between the lands of Skelbo and Pronsy and the burgh, a subject of prolonged disputers He married first in 1579. Margaret, daughter of George Sinclair, Earl of Caithness and secondly, before 1604, Margaret. daughter of William Macintosh of Dunachton. He died in 1616 and had three sons and two daughters:

b. James bought Kinminitie in Banff from James Grant of Freuehie and Blanch in the parish of Rogart in Sutherland together with other lands from John Murray of Aberscors in 1624. He was tutor to his nephew Alexander Sutherland of Duffus. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Seaton of Mionylangain, Longford. He died in 1679-80 and was ancestor to the Sutherlands of Kinminitie

C. John, ancestor to the Sutherlands of Clyne. (parish of Clyne, Sutherland).

d. Margaret married (contract of 1610) Colonel Robert Monro of Fowlis. She died young.

E. Janet married George Ogilvy, first Lord Banff.

11. William, son and heir to his father William Sutherland of Duffus inherited the barony of Skelbo in 1616. He was involved in several disputes with Sir Robert Gordon, with the Earl of Sutherland in or before 1617 over tithes and with John Gordon of Embo, a feud breaking out in 1625. In 1612 he married Jean or Janet, daughter of John Grant of Freuchie. He died in 1626 and had three sons and one daughter:

b. William, heir to his brother John in the lands of Kinminitie and other lands in Banff, infeft in 1662: named in the testament of his brother Lord Duffus in 1674 had Inverhassie in 1694.

C. John, named in 1649 as brother to the laird of Duffus and Commissioner of Supply for Elgin. He married (contract of 1656) Isabella, daughter of David Ross of Bainagown who married secondly (contract of 1659) James Innes Lichnet. John died in or before 1658.

d. Anne married Patrick Grant. As lieutenant-colonel took part in the battle of Worcester in England in 1651. She was still alive in 1663.

12. Alexander succeeded his father William when five years old In 1627 she was named heir to Duffus. His uncle, James Sutherland of Kinminitie, became his tutor. In 1641 Alexandar accompanied the Earl of Sutherland on his visit to England attending that same year the Parliament at Edinburgh and the arrival of King Charles I (1625-49). He was knighted before 1643 and served as a Commissioner for Sutherland in 1646. In 1647 he petitioned and received from Parliament, for loss in adhering to the Covenant, 3000 merks Scots of which one third for his uncle James Sutherland. He travelled in France and Holland returning from the continent with King Charles II (1649-85) to Scotland in 1650. He was fined for his opposition to Cromwell and the taking of Perth with 600 men. Alexander married first Jean, daughter of Colin Mackenzie, Earl of Seaforth secondly Jean, daughter of Sir Robert Innes of Innes thirdly Margaret, daughter of James Stewart, Ear] of Moray and fourthly Margaret, daughter of William, Lord Forbes. Lord Duffus died in 1674. He had three sons and three daughters:

C. Robin, named in his father's letter of 1666.

d. Marie, (named as Robin her brother).

E. Margaret, named in her father's will.

F. Henrietta, named in her father's will, married George, Earl of Linlithgow.

13. James, second Lord Duffus, succeeded his father Alexander in 1674. He attended the Scots Parliament in 1678, 1681 and 1685, and became a Privy Councillor in 1686. Much indebted he sold or mortgaged his estate to his son James. In 1688, apparently in exasperation, Duffus drew his sword and killed William Ross of Kindeace, who had been pressing him for payment. Duffus fled to England but later appears to have been pardoned. In 1639 he supported the Prince of Orange and in 1690 took oath of allegiance to him as King William III (1689-1702). In 1695 his privilege of fairs and markets at Duffus was enacted in the Scots Parliament and in 1701 he supported the Darien Company, the dream of a Scots merchant colony in Central America (1698-1700), perhaps the worst economic disaster in Scottish history. He married (contract of 1674) Margaret daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie, Earl of Seaforth. He died in 1705 and had five sons and seven daughters:

b. James, advocate, in 1704 acquired his father's estate with a loan from Archibald Dunbar of Thunderton. Unable to pay, he parted with the estate to his creditor. After he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Dunbar of Hempriggs. Assuming the surname Dunbar, he was made a baronet. He died before 1739 and had issue.

C. William of Roscommon married (contract of 1702) Helen, daughter of William Duff of Dipple. As a Jacobite he left Scotland after the rebellion of 1716.

F. Elizabeth had dancing lessons in Edinburgh in 1704 and married (contract of 1709) Sir John Gordon of Embo.

já. Mary married James Sinclair of Mey.

j. Katharine married John Cuthbert, town clerk of Inverness.

k. Isabel was buried at Greyfriars, Edinburgh, in 1694.

1. Esther married John Ross. They were infeft in Easter Balvraid, parish of Dornoch, Sutherland, in 1711.

14. Kenneth, third Lord Duffus, succeeded his father James in 1705. As a captain in the Queen's Navy (Queen Anne.1702-14), he, in 1711 with his frigate of forty-six guns, engaged eight French privateers, and wounded by five bullets was captured. Although he voted for the Union of the English and Scottish Parliaments (1707), he joined the Jacobites in 1715, leading that year more than four hundred of the rebels into Tain and there proclaimed the Chevalier St. George, 'The Old Pretender' as King James VIII. The Lairds of Culloden and Kilravock refusing to surrender, the rebels marched South to join the Earl of Mar at Perth. After the Jacobite defeat of 171S the estate of Duffus was forfeited and Lord Duffus, by way of Caithness, escaped to Sweden. Preparing to return to Britain he was seized in Hamburg and imprisoned in the Tower of London but freed without trial in 1717. Later he entered the Russian Navy. He married (contract dated 1708) Charlotta Chnstina, daughter of Eric Sioblade, Governor of Gottenberg in Sweden. He died in or before 1734 and had one son and two daughters:

b. Charlotta named in 1778 as one ef her mother's executors.

C. Anna married Baron and Count Marshall Gustaff Adolf Palbitzki of Sweden. She also was named in 1778 as one of her mother's executors.

15. Eric, baptized in 1710, succeeded his father Kenneth as titular Lord Duffus. In 1734 he petitioned King George II (1727-60) but his claim to the Lordship of Duffus was reflected by the House of Lords. It is said that Eric was an ensign in Colonel Disney's regiment in 1731. Residing at Ackergill Castle by Wick in Caithness and on a friendly footing with the Earl of Sutherland, he supported King George in the Jacobite rising of 1745-46. He married his cousin Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Dunbar of Hempriggs. He died probably at Skelbo, perhaps at Skibo, in 1763 and had two sons and three daughters:

A. James born in 1747, named as heir to his father in 1770 was captain in the 26th Regiment when he eloped with Mary, daughter of James Hayt Earl of Erroll, wife of General John Scott of Balcomie, who divorced her in 1771. The title of Lord Duffus was restored to James by Act of Parliament in 1826. He died unmarried at Marylebone in 1827. His death marked the end of the Sutherlands of Duffus.

C. Elizabeth married first Captain Alexander Sinclair, son of Sir William Sinclair of Keiss secondly Charies Sinclair of Olrig and thirdly, in 1772, the Reverend James Rudd, rector in Yorkshire.

E. Anne, third daughter born 1750, married at Embo in 1766 George Mackay of Skibo, advocate in 1737, 'captain in one of London's independent companies' in 1745. (1)

(Words marked- may require explanation)

Archdeacon: chief of the attendants upon a bishop.

Chalder: 16 bolls or 64 firlots of corn (1 boll: 6 imperial bushels 1 bushel: 2218.19 cubic inches). Charter: document or evidence for certain privileges or rights granted, originally by the sovereign to a subject.

Crag of Dunnottar: Gaelic, creag, rock (of difficult access): locality with ruins of ancient stronghold on the coast of Angus.

Esquire: old French, esquier, shield bearer in chivalry, a young man of gentle birth.

Fier: the owner of the fee-simple of a property (as opposed to a life-renter). Fee-simple: an estate in land belonging to the owner and his heirs for ever in absolute possession.

Forfeited: from forfeit, to lose in consequence of a breach of law.

Homage roll: (in feudal law) record or list of acknowledgement of allegiance by tenants or vassals declaring themselves men of the king or the lord of whom they hold and bind themselves in service.

Ilk: same, identical of that ilk, of the same place, territorial designation or name.

Infeftment: from enfeoffment, the action of putting a tenant legally in possession of a holding, or to surrender a holding.

Lord apperand: lord from old English hlaford, (hlaf, loaf and weard, ward or keepers master, ruler. Apperand: heir apparent, manifest heir, successor.

Master: heir apparent to a Scottish peerage (noble title).

Moravia: Latin for Moray or Morayshlre.

Merk: money of the value of a mark weight of pure silver or, in history, 2/3 of the L Sterling. In Scotland, a coin worth 13 shillings and four pence Snots: 13 l/2 pence English (1480) .

Oxgang: the eighth part of the ploughland, 10 to 18 or more acres. Ploughland: the unit of assessment of land after the Norman Conquest (1066) based upon the area capable of being tilled by one plough team of eight oxen in the year.

Parson: holder of a parochial benefice in full possession of its rights and dues, (clergyman).

Petty, Bracholy, Boharm and Arkldol:

Privy Council: the counsellors of the sovereign.

Regality: sovereign rule, territorial jurisdiction of a royal nature granted by the king area subject to a lord of regality.

Sasine: the act of giving possession of feudal property.

Sheriff: the representative of the sovereign, responsible for certain administrative functions and the execution of the law in a shire.

Teinds: from teind. tenth part or tithe of yearly produce from land, payable for the support of the clergy by the laity.

Thane: person ranking with the son of an earl, holding lands of the king.

Toune: from Gaelic, dun, fortified place, hence enclosed ground. 'In Scotland a single house may be called a town' (Sir Walter Scott in 'Waverley').

Vassal: In the feudal system, one holding lands from a superior on conditions of homage and allegiance. (See homage).

Ward and Relief: Ward, the control and use of the lands of a deceased tenant by knight service and the guardianship of the infant heir which belonged to the superior until the heir attained majority. Relief: a payment made by the heir of a feudal tenant on taking up possession of the vacant estate.

Writer to the Signet: a clerk in the Secretary of State's office who prepared writs to pass the royal signet later a law- agent practicing before the Court of Session and preparing Crown writs, charters, etc. Signet: a Small seal.

1. Paul, Sir James Balfour, Lord Lyon King of Arms, 'The Scots Peerage founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that Kingdom', Vol. VIII, Edinburgh, 1904-14.

2. Fraser, Sir William, 'The Sutherland Book', 3 Vols., Edinburgh, 1894.

3. Henderson, John, 'Caithness Family History', Edinburgh, 1884.

4. Grant, F. J. 'Register of Marriage, Edinburgh 1751-1800'. Edinburgh, 1922.

5. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary and other sources.


George Sutherland, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, U.S. Senator and Congressman, and Women’s Rights Advocate

George Sutherland, the only Supreme Court Justice to come from Utah, supported women’s rights, particularly the right of women to vote and to engage as full members in American society. Sutherland was born in Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire, England, March 25, 1862, to Frances Slater and Alexander George Sutherland. The extended Sutherland family joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and George and his parents traveled to Utah by ship, train, and wagon when he was only eighteen months old. Once in Utah, they settled in Springville, where George described his childhood as very simple and very hard. Because of his father’s problems with alcoholism, his parents left the church, and George was never baptized as a church member.

George quit school at age 12 and worked full-time to save money to attend Brigham Young Academy (BYA), a precursor to Brigham Young University. At age 16 he started at BYA, attended for two years, and then attended University of Michigan Law School for one year.

George Sutherland. Courtesy of Utah State Historical Society.

Returning to Utah, George married Rosamond Lee in 1883. They eventually became parents to three children. He practiced law with his father in Provo for three years, and then formed his own firm with Samuel Thurman in Salt Lake City. He entered politics, and in 1895 served on a commission drafting the Utah Constitution that provided for women’s suffrage, a cause which George would champion throughout his career.

In 1896, when Utah was admitted as a state to the Union, George, a Republican, was elected to the Senate in the first state legislature. In 1900, he was elected to Utah’s only U.S. Congressional seat, and in 1905, the Utah State Legislature elected him to the U.S. Senate, the method at the time for selecting U.S. senators.

Over the next decade, George became a leading figure in the national suffrage movement. Both he and his wife gave speeches and held meetings supporting the right to vote. The Sutherlands became friends with Alice Paul, the leader of the more radical Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, later the National Women’s Party, and helped her with events staged to garner support for the movement. In August 1915, women held a meeting in Salt Lake City to welcome Paul and her automobile train traveling from the Women’s Voter Convention in San Francisco to Washington, D.C. that gathered more than 500,00 signatures in support of a women’s suffrage amendment. At the meeting, Annie Wells Cannon, daughter of leading Utah suffragist Emmeline B. Wells, thanked George for his support, and he gave a few supporting remarks. When the train arrived in Washington, D.C. several months later, George and Wyoming Congressman Franklin Wheeler Mendell greeted it. On December 6, Representative Mendell introduced the Susan B. Anthony Amendment into the U.S. House, and the next day George introduced it into the U.S. Senate.

Senator George Sutherland, Winifred Mallon, Reverend Olympia Brown, Alva Belmont at the Utah State Capitol welcoming the suffrage envoys from the San Francisco Exposition that were carrying petitions to Washington D.C. in October 1915. Courtesy of the National Women’s Party.

On December 13, Paul sponsored a mass meeting that took place at the Belasco Theatre in Washington D.C. with George as a main speaker. He based his arguments on the practical experience of the twelve states, including Utah, that had already granted the vote to women:

To my mind the right of women to vote is as obvious as my own right. . . When we have proven the case for universal manhood suffrage we have made clear the case for womanhood suffrage as well. Women on average are as intelligent as men, as patriotic as men, as anxious for good government as men, and to deprive them of the right to participate in the government is to make an arbitrary division . . . .

Flyer advertising Senator George Sutherland of Utah as a speaker for a mass meeting of the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage in Belasco, Massachusetts. Courtesy of Library of Congress.

He closed by affirming that “women’s fundamental nature” would not change once they were given the right to vote indeed, “it [voting] will deepen her sense of responsibility, give her a more intelligent appreciation of her country’s needs and broaden her opportunity to ‘do her bit’ for the common good.”

The amendment failed in 1916. George, too, suffered defeat after two terms in Congress, a defeat he felt came about because of his support for the amendment. He returned to legal practice and became President of the American Bar Association in 1918. He served as a campaign and later presidential advisor to Warren G. Harding. After the 19th Amendment was ratified in 1920, Alice Paul moved on to crafting the Equal Rights Amendment and consulted with George. Both agreed that the law should treat women and men equally no matter their alleged differences.

Supreme Court Justice George Sutherland. Courtesy of Utah State Historical Society.

President Harding appointed George an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in 1922, and he served until 1938. An opponent of Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation, the conservative George became known as one of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. His most important opinion was the majority opinion rendered in the case of Powell v Alabama, which helped lead to the constitutional right to counsel in all criminal cases and a recognition of the illegality of systematically excluding African Americans from juries.

George died July 18, 1942, while on vacation in Stockbridge, Massachusetts.

Ann Engar is a professor/lecturer in the Honors College and LEAP Program at the University of Utah, specializing in intellectual history, pedagogy, and law. She has authored numerous short biographies, including for the online NASW project, and serves on the Holladay Historical Commission.


HistoryLink.org

Spokane historian Jerome Peltier interviewed pioneer George Washington Sutherland (1854-1949) in the 1940s and in 1989 prepared this account for The Pacific Northwesterner. It describes Sutherland’s trip West, his years as a cowboy, and his service as a volunteer in the Nez Perce War. This essay was originally published in the Spring 1989 issue of The Pacific Northwesterner (Vol. 33, No. 1), pp. 8-14, and is here reprinted with permission.

A Young Man Goes West

George Washington Sutherland's grand adventure began in 1872 when, as an 18-year-old, he felt the urge to see the wide-open spaces of the American West. He had read letters from William Purington to his father, Captain George Purington, of Bowdoinham, Maine, that described in glowing terms the fertile grasslands of Washington Territory and the opportunities available to anyone daring to leave home and start again in a new land. At the time, George had been working as a farmhand for Purington, who had been a captain in the Union Army during the Civil War. When the captain mentioned that he and his family would soon be leaving to join William at his cattle ranch, George asked if he could go with them.

Unfortunately, George had a serious problem. He had only $15 to his name. Somehow, George convinced the captain to lend him $140, and his father chipped in $25 making a total of $180. The Puringtons were leaving on Friday, so three days before that, George asked his mother for permission to go. After much hesitation, she reluctantly agreed. In the meantime, Captain Purington had gone to Boston and purchased George's train ticket to San Francisco for $122. George was on his way on August 20, 1872, with $58 that had to last him until he reached the Purington ranch somewhere in the southeast part of Washington Territory.

This is the story that George Sutherland related to me as he sat on his bed at Sacred Heart Hospital in Spokane in 1941, when he was 87 years old. He later told me of many other events that happened to him during his long and active life, but exciting as they were, all were but an anticlimax to his trip west.

West by Rail

The Puringtons had first-class tickets and George was traveling second class, so George didn't see them again during the entire trip. For the first time in his life, he was alone without friends or family. The train did not have a diner, so for the entire nine-day trip, George ate from a large basket of food his mother had packed for him. At night, he slept on his stiff uncomfortable seat in the unheated car, covered by a pair of blankets that his mother had insisted he take with him.

He crossed the Mississippi at St. Louis over the Eads steel bridge, an engineering marvel for its time. At Council Bluffs, Iowa, he walked across the bridge over the Missouri River to Omaha, where he boarded a Union Pacific train. He stopped over in Cheyenne, Wyoming, for a day and a half. Wyoming was the first state in the nation to grant women the right to vote and he noted that many women in the town were voting. He continued his trip through Rawlins, Wyoming, and Ogden, Utah, passing bands of antelope as the train chugged along the plains. Once a herd of buffalo thundered down the tracks, almost destroying them. Finally the train crossed the deserts of northern Nevada and reached Sacramento. He arrived in San Francisco on August 29 to be met at the station by a confidence man who tried to swindle him out of his meager funds. George ignored him and hurried to the steamboat office where he bought a third-class passage to Portland, Oregon, for $20.

About 4 p.m. the next day, he left on what he called "the old tub, the Oroflame, a sidewheeler." He continued, "No one would travel on such a boat today. When we got outside the Golden Gate, the boat began to pitch and wallow for four days until we got to Astoria."

At that time, Astoria consisted of a cluster of huts on pilings. The boat tied up there for half-a-day while cargo and mail from the East were unloaded. He finally reached Portland by evening and learned that another boat would be leaving for Wallula the next morning. He hurriedly spent $12 of his rapidly depleting money for a ticket. He couldn't afford to buy meals or a berth, as they cost extra.

His boat left early the next morning and by 10 a.m. had reached the cascades of the Columbia River, where cargo had to be unloaded and carried by cars on a narrow gauge railroad six miles upriver to another steamer, which continued the trip to The Dalles. Following an overnight stay, freight and passengers were again transported by narrow-gauge railroad to another steamer eight miles upriver, which went as far as Umatilla, where it stopped for the night. At that time, Umatilla was a lively town of about 3,000 people. All supplies for eastern Oregon and southern Idaho came through there until the Oregon Steam Navigation Company constructed a rail line to its docks on the Columbia at Wallula. Supplies then went from there to Walla Walla, which became the main distribution point.

The Real West

The day he arrived at Umatilla was windy, and sand was piling up in the streets in drifts three or four-feet deep, according to George. After a night in town, he boarded another steamer, which took him to Wallula where he arrived penniless and hungry. He had spent the last of his money for a berth. He made a deal with a teamster to haul his rifle and baggage to Walla Walla while he walked, arriving there about 6 p.m. after a hot, dusty hike. He went to the St. Louis Hotel and told the proprietor that he wanted a meal and a place to sleep, but had no money. The proprietor said, "Young man, the world is yours. Help yourself." George took him at his word, had a good meal and a good night's sleep.

George recalled, "Every other door was a saloon. There were many teamsters. I watched some of them packing mules, as many as 75 to a train (for the trip to the mines), and the mule trains were strung out for miles. There were many large corrals mainly for the mules."

Walla walla was the supply center for the region. "The mules were hitched in teams of six, eight or 10 to large freight wagons. Horsedrawn stage coaches were coming and going through town. Men worked hard and played hard, and saloons had plenty of patrons. Card games were going on all of the time."

In his wanderings around town, George located a teamster who had heard about the Purington ranch and was passing by it. He agreed to transport George's belongings and guide George there if George was willing to walk all of the way. George borrowed $2.50 from his new-found friend, paid his hotel and food bill with it, and left that afternoon on the last leg of his journey. This would be a jaunt of 80 miles to the area around Penewawa on the north side of the Snake River approximately 25 miles due west of present-day Pullman, Washington.

The man's team consisted of a small mule hitched to an unkempt, scrawny cayuse pony, barely able to pull an unloaded wagon let alone a loaded one. George felt so sorry for the animals that he left his trunk behind, taking only his blankets, his rifle, a pistol, and a saddle bag. He had brought the guns as protection from the "Indians and badmen" that he understood "infested" the West at that time.

The first day's travel brought them to what George called Whetstone Hollow, which offered good grazing for the team. The road was merely an Indian trail showing traces of heavy use. In places, the ruts were two-feet deep, while in other places, the trail could barely be discerned. Drivers often deviated from the track, going where they felt they could make the best time.

The second day, George observed that the hills were dry and parched, although they were covered with nutritious bunch grass. By noon, they reached the Tucannon River where a man named Platter ran a crude rest station. After climbing out of the Tucannon Valley, they started down toward the Snake River on a narrow hilly road, the wagon nearly tipping over several times. Finally the river came into view, glistening in the distance, and Brown's Ferry became visible. While they were hastening down the Snake River breaks, a post rider charged past them, carrying the mail from Kelton, Utah, to points north via Walla Walla, Colfax, Spokan Bridge, Rathdrum, Idaho, and by boat across Lake Pend Oreille to Missoula, Montana.

Two other Snake River crossings existed at that time: Lyon's Ferry near the mouth of the Palouse River and the ferry at Lewiston where the Snake joins the Clearwater River. Dusty sign-boards advertised these ferries declaring that plenty of wood, water, and grass was present along the road.

George described Brown's rest stop as a square box shanty and a shed in which a man could rest himself and his horse. This was the first habitation George encountered since leaving the Tucannon River. After crossing the river, George helped pull the wagon up the hill where the team found good grass and water, as the signs had promised.

By noon of September 17, George arrived at Gooseberry Springs in Whitman County and his teamster friend told him that after they reached Alki Flat, he could easily find the Purington ranch by heading south toward the Snake River. George thanked him, gave him his pistol as a pawn for his $2. 50 debt, and they parted.

Riding the Range

With a feeling of loneliness, the youth started across the rolling hills. No other human being was in sight. It seemed as if there was always a hill ahead of him, but finally, he came to a ravine that led down to the Snake River, where he quenched his thirst. He realized that he had turned south too soon and was lost, but after walking several more miles, he saw a small shack ahead of him. The sun was setting and his pack was heavy, so the hut was a welcome sight. He knocked on the door and a surprised William Purington answered with a warm welcome for the weary traveler.

A man named Holbrook was staying with Purington at the time, and these two men were George's first acquaintances in Whitman County. He rested a few days and after getting a horse, went out with the other hired hands to learn how to be a cowpuncher. The next phase of his life had begun.

"My wages were $25 a month and board, and I wasn't worth that much as I was a green Easterner. I did become quite a cowboy eventually," George said. It was not long before George became fully trained in riding and rounding up cattle. Soon he was able to go on long trips in search of strays.

"There were thousands of cattle down there, and we had a huge range to cover. My employer ran a herd of from 500 to 1,000 head. Our range extended from Lewiston to the Palouse, 90 miles east and west, and from the Snake River to Spokane Falls." There were no fences. Cattle from various ranches mingled freely as they grazed, and were separated by brand at roundup time.

"Spokane Falls was a poor feeding ground, so we did not give it much attention. I think that the first time I was there, there were only two houses in the place. Colfax was the same."

In a conversation several years later, George described the rangeland in the Snake River country:

"Along the banks of the river, large portions of the hills at the north had slid down the canyons (in the past) due to cloudbursts and the continuous flow of small streams, and had formed bars . which were very fertile. A number of Indians had claimed this land, but then the settlers started coming in, some of whom took squatter's rights on it. This, of course, caused trouble right away. The first place to become involved was four miles above the place that I was working -- Penewawa.

"There were two brothers named Smith who were cattlemen, who were the first to settle on this land and they thought that the Indians were not entitled to such good land and should be back on a reservation, so they took it for themselves. This land is in cultivation today [1945] with fine orchards of peaches, pears and cherries, and is worth many thousands of dollars.

"There were two other bars on the river that received freight from Portland from a steamer that called once a week. One was at Almota, where Henry Spalding, son of the missionary, ran a store and a hotel. The other was at Wawawai. Senator La Follette of Wisconsin and the Holt brothers had a large orchard there and shipped quantities of fruit all over the country. There was trouble here between the Indians and settlers and one Indian was killed by the man I was working for. The trouble was finally settled by Chief [Spokane] Garry, who was a noted Indian at that time.

"During those days, the Indians became rather insulting and would come into cabins if there was no man around and (ask the womenfolk) for something to eat, tobacco, or matches. Of course, the settlers were frightened by them at first, but later became somewhat used to them. The women would stand no nonsense and always kept a rifle or pistol handy. I was afraid of them at first, (but) after awhile picked up enough of their jargon to talk with them and was able to understand [them].

"At the Purington ranch, we planted peach, pear and apple trees. In the Spring of 1873 we planted all kinds of seeds and also sweet potatoes, tobacco, peanuts and cotton. They all grew well. The wind blew a gale at times so we set out a wind break of locust trees.

"The winter of 1874-5 was the worst I ever spent. Cattle died by the thousands, for the snow was deep and the springs were frozen so badly that it was impossible for the cattle to drink. It was frightfully cold. When Winter broke, dead cattle were everywhere. Great pieces of ice came down the Snake River. Some of the flows were 40 feet high."

George tired of the monotony of ranch life and left for the big city in 1875. He went to Portland where he started on a succession of jobs that took him from Walla Walla to Moscow, Idaho, and Newport, Washington. Employment was readily available for anyone willing to work and George tried everything from being a waiter, a barber, a sewing machine salesman, and a druggist. He even took a turn at practicing medicine.

Nez Perce War

In 1877, he was in Colfax when word arrived of the Nez Perce uprising. George provided me with a written account of his experience:

"On June 15, word came that a group of the Nez Perce Indians under the leadership of Chief Joseph had begun hostilities against the white settlers in western Idaho Territory by killing in cold blood several of the settlers. On Sunday, the 17th day of June, I, as well as many others, were at a camp meeting at what was known as Chase's Mill, about 18 miles east of Colfax, when a man by the name of Joe Evans came into camp about 11 o'clock with his horse covered with sweat, and said: 'The Indians are coming down Union Flat, killing and burning everything in sight.' (Actually, no fighting occurred in Union Flat.)

"The meeting broke up without waiting for the benediction, and everyone started for home or for Colfax. When I arrived back in Colfax, I found the streets barricaded and great excitement. An old man by the name of D. S. Bowman was upon the stoop of the only store in town, and he was saying, 'Gentlemen, I have lived in Indian country all of my life, and I can say to all of you people that we should organize a company of volunteers. Then you will be recognized by the government.' We organized a company on the spot. We appointed officers (and) all signed the roster and were sworn in. Then we were all told to go out and get all the firearms we had or could borrow. When we returned, all we could muster was 22 rifles, shotguns, and pistols. My duty, with two others, was to stand guard at the south end of town on the hills where it was supposed that the Indians would come through.

"The next morning, I was ordered to reconnoiter and report. I went first to Three Forks, where Pullman is now situated, but there was no one within five miles. From there I went to Palouse City. There were very few families there, but the men from town and country were building a stockade. I stopped over there to help where I could. The next day, I went on to Moscow. Only a few people were there, but they were building a stockade with a big cellar inside for the women and children. It was built on a sloping side hill, and we could see the Indians passing along the foothills [on] the trail between Spokane and Lewiston. I stayed there for two days and had a chance to send a report to Colfax. Then I went to Lewiston, arriving there the same evening that General Howard arrived by boat from Portland with company of Georgia troops. They had no experience in fighting Indians, but a company was ordered out to go up Craig's Mountain to Grangeville and Mount Idaho and White Bird Canyon. They were sent down in regular formation and the Indians were up on the sides of the canyon, and as I was told by one of the company, they had no chance at all .

"After Joseph and his band eluded General Howard and fled over the Lolo Pass into Montana with the intention of reaching sanctuary in Canada, Sutherland and the members of his company of volunteers were ordered to watch for any stragglers who might circle back. We went to Mount Idaho, Grangeville, White Bird and many other places where we thought we might run into Indians, but we did not see any from that time on. The company was mustered out in August or September of the same year, 1877."

George's account concludes, "All the records [of the company's activities] . were destroyed in the big fire, so we have no record of our company's doings. After our enlistment, we had to furnish all of our equipment, horse, saddle, blankets and eat where we could. After 60 years, I think I am entitled to a badge of some kind as five of my company were receiving pensions (and I was not). I have saved Uncle Sam quite a sum of money by not applying for one. I did not need the money and I did not think that I was doing anything but my duty. We had to protect our homes under any circumstances."

George continued traveling over the Northwest investing in various business enterprises including mining, all with mediocre success. He eventually settled in Newport, Washington. There, he was a member of the City Council, served several terms as Mayor, was County Commissioner of Stevens and Pend Oreille Counties and president of a bank. He died in 1949 after a long and active life in which he realized his ambition of being a pioneer in the American West.

This essay is part of HistoryLink's People's History collection. People's Histories include personal memoirs and reminiscences, letters and other historical documents, interviews and oral histories, reprints from historical and current publications, original essays, commentary and interpretation, and expressions of personal opinion, many of which have been submitted by our visitors. They have not been verified by HistoryLink.org and do not necessarily represent its views.

Prameny:

Spokane historian Jerome Peltier interviewed pioneer George Washington Sutherland (1854-1949) in the 1940s.


The Sutherland Archives makes collections available for research to the campus community and the public at large. Access to archival materials is with assistance of Archives staff only. Items in the Sutherland Archives do not circulate like other Library materials, but photocopies of documents or scanned images of photographs can be obtained by request, usually within 24 hours. Holdings information for materials in the Archives is available through the Fulton Library's online catalog. For more information regarding items contained in our collections or any other archives-related questions, please contact us.

The George Sutherland Archives focuses on building collections in the following areas:

  • • The history of Utah Valley University
    • Professional or personal manuscripts, publications, and papers of current and former UVU administrators, faculty, staff, and notable alumni or area residents
    • UVU students’ theses or other faculty-reviewed projects or other publications
    • The secular history of local cities, particularly Orem, Lindon, Vineyard, and surrounding communities
    • Utah County history
    • General Utah history
    • American Deaf history and culture, particularly Utah

We focus on collecting the following types of items that fit within the stated collection scope:

Please note: We are not actively collecting rare books and other rare items that do not fit our scope.


Arkes, Hadley. The Return of George Sutherland: Restoring a Jurisprudence of Natural Rights. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Mason, Alpheus Thomas. "The Conservative World of Mr. Justice Sutherland, 1883-1910." American Political Science Review 32 (June 1938): 443-77.

Paschal, Joel Francis. Mr. Justice Sutherland, a Man Against the State. 1951. Reprint. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969.

Sutherland, George. Constitutional Power and World Affairs. 1919. Reprint. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1970.


SUTHERLAND Genealogy

WikiTree je komunita genealogů, kteří pěstují stále přesnější kolaborativní rodokmen, který je pro všechny navždy 100% zdarma. Prosím Připoj se k nám.

Please join us in collaborating on SUTHERLAND family trees. K růstu a potřebujeme pomoc dobrých genealogů zcela zdarma sdílený rodokmen, který nás všechny spojí.

DŮLEŽITÉ UPOZORNĚNÍ A ODMÍTNUTÍ OCHRANY SOUKROMÍ: MÁTE ZODPOVĚDNOST ZA POUŽÍVÁNÍ UPOZORNĚNÍ PŘI ROZDĚLOVÁNÍ SOUKROMÝCH INFORMACÍ. WIKITREE OCHRANA NEJCITLIVĚJŠÍ INFORMACE, ALE POUZE V ROZSAHU uvedeném v PODMÍNKY SLUŽBY A ZÁSADY OCHRANY OSOBNÍCH ÚDAJŮ.


SUTHERLAND, GEORGE

In 1883 Sutherland had completed one term at the University of Michigan Law School and qualified for the Michigan bar. That summer he returned to Utah and married Rosamund Lee. They had three children--Emma (born 1884), Philip (born 1886), and Edith (born 1888)--whom he supported by practicing law in Utah. In 1894 he helped to organize the Utah State Bar Association.

In 1896 Sutherland, a Republican, joined the first Utah House of Representatives. In 1899 he was admitted to the bar of the United States Supreme Court, and from 1900 to 1903 he served as Utah's only Representative in the U.S. House. He then served in the U.S. Senate from 1905 to 1916. During this period, he supported much progressive legislation, including a Utah law for an eight-hour day in the mining and smelting industries, as well as national statues such as the Pure Food and Drug Act.

Defeated for the Senate nomination in 1916, Sutherland went into private law practice, served as president of the American Bar Association, and became an advisor to Republican presidential hopeful Warren G. Harding in the campaign of 1920. Harding's election and the sudden resignation of a Supreme Court justice in 1922 paved the way for Sutherland's appointment to the bench.

Sutherland's Supreme Court record belied his earlier progressive stance. He penned such majority opinions as the landmark Adkins v. Children's Hospital, which outlawed a minimum wage for women. In the thirties, he opposed most of the New Deal legislation, and became the intellectual leader of the "Four Horsemen"--the four conservative justices consistently voting against President Franklin D. Roosevelt's programs. He retired from the Court in January 1938 and died on 18 July 1942. He retained the respect of his peers throughout his career and is rated by many historians as "near great" for his Supreme Court performance.

Disclaimer: Information on this site was converted from a hard cover book published by University of Utah Press in 1994.

The Book - Utah History Encyclopedia

Original book edited by:
Allen Kent Powell

Originally published by:
University of Utah Press
J. Willard Marriott Library
295 South 1500 East, Suite 5400
Salt Lake City, Utah 84112

Kontaktujte nás 800-621-2736

The Website - Utah History Encyclopedia

Website maintained by:
Utah Education Network - UEN
101 South Wasatch Drive
Salt Lake City, Utah 84112

Kontaktujte nás 800-866-5852
Podmínky použití
Web Accessibility


Podívejte se na video: Nature Trust Stories: George Sutherland